Banking Awareness Inwards Uncomplicated Linguistic Communication – Lesson 23

Dear Gr8 Ambitionists, I am Krishna. I shared Banking Awareness lessons inwards unproblematic language for IBPS PO together with Clerical exams of the twelvemonth 2016. I desire to hold the same for upcoming IBPS PO VII, Clerks VII together with Regional Rural Bank exams too. I volition hold from where I stopped. I take away hold shared 22 lessons together with so far. So today I am continuing alongside the 23rd lesson. I asking y’all to read all these 22 lessons from below links earlier proceeding to this lesson 23. Happy Reading 🙂

Banking Awareness Lessons inwards Simple Language

In our previous Banking Awareness Lesson 22, nosotros take away hold learnt virtually namely CBS, Payment & Settlement System inwards India, IFSC, MICR, CTS, NFS, SFMS together with of import years of the development of Payments System inwards India. In today’s lesson nosotros shall larn virtually Bank Risks together with Risk Management. As y’all involve to review all the 22 lessons above, today’s lesson volition last brusk together with simple.

Banking Awareness 2017 : Bank Risks & Risk Management

Bank Risks

In the course of education of their operations, banks involve to expression upwards diverse types of risks that may take away hold potentially negative upshot on their business. There are 8 types of risks.  We tin split these risks inwards iii categories. They are :
  1. Major Risks
    1. Credit Risk
    2. Market Risk
    3. Operatically Risk
  2. Other Significant Risks
    1. Liquidity Risk
    2. Business Risk
    3. Reputational Risk
  3. Unrelated Risks 
    1. Systematic Risk
    2. Moral Hazard
Now let’s larn virtually them inwards detail

Major Risks

Credit Risk

The BCBS (Basel Committee on Banking Supervision) defines credit adventure every bit the potential that banking corporation borrower or counterpart, volition neglect to come across its payment obligations regarding the terms agreed alongside the bank. Let’s endeavour to empathize this inwards unproblematic words, If a borrower does non repay a loan, the lender may lose the regulation of the loan or the involvement associated alongside it. It arises because the borrower expects to piece of occupation futurity cash flows to pay electrical current debts.

A credit adventure is the danger of default on an obligation that may emerge from a borrower neglecting to brand required installments.

Credit adventure is most probable caused past times loans, acceptances, interbank transactions, merchandise financing etc.

Market Risk

BCBS defines marketplace seat adventure every bit the adventure of loses inwards on or off residual sail seat that arise from movement inwards marketplace seat prices. Market adventure arises due to the factors affecting the overall performance of the fiscal market, it is also known every bit the systematic risk.

Operational Risk

BCBS defines operational adventure every bit the adventure of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people & systems or from external events. This Definition includes legal risk, but excludes strategic together with reputation risk. Simply, the Operational adventure is the adventure non arising from financial, systematic or market-wide risk. It is the adventure remaining afterward determining systematic together with financing adventure together with includes adventure resulting from breakdowns inwards internal procedures.

As per BIS (Bank of International Settlements) operational adventure is the adventure of loss, resulting from failed internal process, people together with systems or from external events.

Operational managements are of next types

  • Human risk: loss because of a human error, done unconsciously or willingly.
  • IT/System risk: Losses due to failure of systems, failure of software, etc.
  • Processes risk: Loss caused due to improper information, leaking of information.

Other Significant Risks

Liquidity Risk:

Liquidity agency a banking corporation has the powerfulness to come across payment obligations primarily from its depositors together with has plenty coin to plow over loans. “So, the liquidity adventure is the adventure of a banking corporation non beingness able to take away hold plenty cash to comport out its twenty-four hr menstruum to twenty-four hr menstruum operations”. 

Business Risk:

It is the adventure arising from a bank’s long-term describe of piece of occupation concern strategy. It tin also arise from a banking corporation choosing the incorrect strategy which mightiness Pb to its failure.

Reputation Risk:

It is the adventure of harm to a bank’s ikon & world standing that occurs due to approximately dubious actions taken past times the bank. It leads to the public’s loss of confidence inwards a bank.

Reputational adventure is the major hidden adventure than tin pose a threat to the survival of the bank. The reputational adventure arises from the actions of errant employees.

Unrelated Risks :

Systematic Risk:

It refers to the adventure that the entire fiscal scheme mightiness come upwards to a standstill. Systematic adventure is the elevate of the most nightmarish scenario y’all tin yell upwards of. 

Systematic adventure consists of twenty-four hr menstruum to twenty-four hr menstruum fluctuations inwards a stock’s price

Moral Hazard:

It is most interesting adventure that nosotros volition cover. We read together with heard the phrase “too-big-to-fail” inwards the media. “Too-big-to-fail” is cypher but moral jeopardy inwards a scene. 
Moral Hazard refers to a province of affairs where a person, a grouping (or persons) or an scheme is probable to take away hold vogue or willingness to convey a high grade risk, fifty-fifty if its economically unsound.  It emerges when both the parties take away hold inadequate information virtually each other.

Risk Management

Risk Management inwards Indian banks  is a relatively newer practice, but has already shown to growth efficiency inwards governing of these banks every bit such procedures tend to growth the corporate governance of a fiscal institution. Risk management inwards banking corporation operations includes adventure identification,
mensuration together with assessment, together with its objective is to minimize negative effects risks tin take away hold on the fiscal termination together with uppercase of a bank. Banks are thus required to shape a especial organizational unit of measurement inwards accuse of adventure management. Also, they are required to prescribe procedures for adventure identification, mensuration together with assessment, every bit good every bit procedures for adventure management.
The Reserve Bank of Republic of Republic of India (RBI) has issued several guidelines on Bank Risk Management System. They are
  • Activities of Asset-Liability Committee (ALCO) together with credit policy commission should last integrated.
  • Banks take away hold to gain a definite fourth dimension frame for moving over to value at risk.
  • Banks take away hold to furnish a contingency conception to come across adverse swings inwards liquidity conditions.
  • Banks should evaluate portfolio character on an on-going footing instead of close residual sail date.
  • Banks to gear upwards a comprehensive adventure rating systems for counter parties.
  • By Mar 2001 banks alongside international presence take away hold to prepare methodologies for estimating together with maintaining economical capital.
  • For managing liquidity adventure banks should house limits on inter banking corporation borrowings.
  • For off residual sail exposure the electrical current together with potential credit exposure to last measured on a daily basis.
  • Investment proposals to last included inwards the full adventure evaluation.
  • Investment proposals to last subjected to same credit adventure analysis every bit inwards the illustration of loan proposals.
That’s all for forthwith friends. In our adjacent Banking Awareness lesson, nosotros shall larn virtually Capital Market. Happy Reading 🙂

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